1800-1899 - 1800-1899

1800: The Native Hawaiian population had declined an estimated 48% since Captain Cook’s arrival

1814: The Creeks cede more than 20 million acres of land after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

1819: Whalers arrive in Hawaii-opening the central Pacific as whaling grounds, bringing more STIs

1820: American Protestant missionaries arrive in Hawaii, also bringing Western physician to serve commoners (alii/ nobles/bad physicians earlier)

1820: The Native Hawaiian population had declined an estimated 71% since Captain Cook’s arrival

1830: Indian Removal Act was signed into law, forcing thousands of Native Americans to relocate, in what became known as the Trail of Tears

1835: First plantation in Koloa, Kauai

1840: The Native Hawaiian population had declined an estimated 84% since Captain Cook’s arrival

1845: Texas is annexed by the US

1846-48: Mexican American War, US gains control of current-day southwestern states

1848: The “Great Mahde” disposes many Hawaiians of access to land

1848: Measles, pertus, and influenza arrive and spread in Hawaii, 10-33% of the population died

1851: US passes the Indian Appropriations Act, creating the Indian reservation system

1852: Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe

1852: First imported contract laborers arrived in Hawaii from Xiamen, China. Later groups were brought from Japan, Portugal, & Philippines

1854: People v. Hall determines that Chinese people cannot testify against white defendants

1862: Lincoln makes California’s ‘coolie trade’ ban national

1863: Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation

1865: Juneteenth (short for June 19th) marks the day when federal troops arrived in Galveston, Texas in 1865 to take control of the state and ensure that all enslaved people be freed

1882: Chinese Exclusion Act

1898: The Supreme Court upholds birthright citizenship in United States vs. Wong Kim Ark

1898: Spanish American War, US gains control of Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines. Hawaii is annexed during the war